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International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering

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International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering


Discipline(s) / Subdiscipline(s):

     1. Engineering & Technology
         - Engineering

E-ISSN: 2180-1606
Print ISSN: 2229-8649
Publisher: Universiti Malaysia Pahang Publishing (UMP Publisher)
Publication type: Print & Electronic
Publication frequency: 2 time(s) per year
Journal Website: http://ijame.ump.edu.my/

Contact Info

Universiti Malaysia Pahang Publishing (UMP Publisher)
Universiti Malaysia Pahang
Lebuhraya Tun Razak
26300 Gambang, Kuantan

Tel : +609-4246239/ +609-4246303
E-mail : ijame@ump.edu.my; mustafizur@ump.edu.my

The Automotive Engineering Centre (AEC), Universiti Malaysia Pahang publishes an open access peer reviewed international journal named “International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering (IJAME) for the dissemination of original research in all fields of Automotive Technology and Mechanical Engineering.

The journal aims to present the latest development and achievements in scientific research in Malaysia and overseas to the world’s community especially to simulate and promote academic exchange between the Malaysia and foreign scientists, engineers and researchers everywhere. Original, innovatives and novel contributions providing insight into the use of analytical, computational modeling as well as experimental research results are encouraged. The IJAME are edited by the international board of distinguished local and foreign scientists, researchers. The objective of publishing this journal in English is to strengthen international exchange in academic research.


The IJAME provides the forum for high quality research communications and addresses all aspects of original experimental information based on theory and their applications. This journal welcomes all contributions from those who wishes to report on new developments in automotive and mechanical engineering fields within the following scopes :

  • Engine/Emission Technology
  • Automobile Body and Safety
  • Vehicle Dynamics
  • Automotive Electronics
  • Alternative Energy
  • Energy Conversion
  • Fuels and Lubricants
  • Combustion and Reacting Flows
  • New and Renewable Energy Technologies
  • Automotive Electrical Systems
  • Automotive Materials
  • Automotive Transmission
  • Automotive Pollution and Control
  • Vhicle Maintenance
  • Intelligent Vehicle/Transportation Systems
  • Fuel Cell, Hybrid, Electrical Vehicle and Other Fields of Automotive Engineering
  • Engineering Management /TQM
  • Heat and Mass Transfer
  • Fluid and Thermal Engineering
  • Engineering Mechanics
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Metallurgy/ Materials Engineering
  • Applied Mechanics
  • Thermodynamics
  • Agricultural Machinery and Equipment
  • Mechatronics
  • Automatic Control
  • Multidisciplinary design and optimization Fluid Mechanics and Dynamics
  • Thermal-Fluids Machinery
  • Experimental and Computational Mechanics
  • Measurement and Instrumentation
  • HVAC
  • Manufacturing Systems
  • Materials Processing
  • Noise and Vibration
  • Composite and Polymer Materials
  • Biomechanical Engineering
  • Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics
  • Machine Components design
  • Gas Turbine
  • Power Plant Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligent/Neural Network
  • Robotic Systems
  • Solar Energy
  • Powder Metallurgy and Metal ceramics
  • Discrete Systems
  • Non-linear Analysis
  • Structural Analysis
  • Tribology
  • Engineering Materials
  • Mechanical Systems and Technology
  • Pneumatic and Hydraulic Systems
  • Failure Analysis
  • Any other related topics


    Professor Dr. Md. Mustafizur Rahman (mustafizur@ump.edu.my)
    Dr. Muhamad Mat Noor (muhamad@ump)

    Editorial Board

  • Professor Dato Dr. Daing Nasir Ibrahim
    Vice Chancellor, Universiti Malaysia Pahang

    Professor Dato' Dr. Rosli Abu Bakar
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang

  • Professor Dr. Md. Mustafizur Rahman
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
    Email: mustafizur@ump.edu.my

    Dr. Muhamad Mat Noor
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
    Email: muhamad@ump.edu.my


  • Dr. Kumaran Kadirgama
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
    Email: kumaran@ump.edu.my

    Dr. Devarajan Ramasamy
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
    Email: deva@ump.edu.my


  • Professor Dr. Masjuki Hj. Hassan
    Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya
    Email: masjuki@um.edu.my

    Professor Dr. Mohd Nasir Tamin
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
    Email: nasirtamin@utm.my

    Professor Dr. Mohd Zamri Yusoff
    Dean, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional
    Email: zamri@uniten.edu.my

    Professor Ir. Dr. Zahari Taha
    Dean, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
    Email: zaharitaha@ump.edu.my

    Professor Dr. A. K. M. Nurul Amin
    Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaya
    Email: akamin@iiu.edu.my

    Professor Dr. Hanafi Ismail
    School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia
    Email: hanafi@eng.usm.my

    Professor Ir. Dr. Ramesh Singh
    Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Universiti Malaya
    Email: ramesh79@um.edu.my

    Associate Professor Dr. Abdul Rashid Abdul Aziz
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas
    Email: rashid@petronas.com.my

    Associate Professor Dr. Zainal Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, University Sains Malaysia
    Email: mezainal@eng.usm.my

    Professor Dr. Aidy Ali
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Defence University of Malaysia (UPNM)
    Email: aidy@upnm.upm.edu.my


  • Professor Dr. Erich Hahne
    Universität Stuttgart, Germany
    Email: hahne@itw.uni-stuttgart.de

    Professor Dr. Viktor P. Astakhov
    University of Michigan, USA
    Email: astvik@gmail.com

    Professor Dr. Hojat Adeli
    Ohio State University, U.S.A.
    Email: Adeli.1@osu.edu

    Professor Dr. Ferri M. H. Aliabadi
    Imperial College, UK
    Email: m.h.aliabadi@imperial.ac.uk

    Professor Kevin L. Edwards
    University of Derby, UK
    Email: K.L.Edwards@derby.ac.uk

    Professor Dr. M.L. Wyszynski
    University of Birmingham, UK
    Email: M.L.Wyszynski@bham.ac.uk

    Professor Dr. Goodarz Ahmadi
    Clarkson University, USA
    Email: ahmadi@clarkson.edu

    Professor Dr. Dennis Assanis
    Uni. of Michigan, USA
    Email: assanis@umich.edu

    Professor Dr. David Hui
    University of New Orleans, USA
    Email: DHui@uno.edu

    Professor Dr. S. A. Sherif
    University of Florida, USA.
    Email: sasherif@ufl.edu

    Professor Dr. Xianguo Li
    University of Waterloo, Canada
    Email: x6li@mecheng1.uwaterloo.ca

    Professor Dr. Jamil A. Khan
    University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA
    Email: khan@cec.sc.edu

    Professor Dr. Guoqiang Li
    Louisiana State University, USA
    Email: guoli@me.lsu.edu

    Professor Dr. Ibrahim Dincer
    University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), Canada
    Email: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca

    Professor Dr. Chang Sik Lee
    Hanyang University, South Korea
    Email: cslee@hanyang.ac.kr

    Professor Dr. Joong Hee Lee
    Chonbuk National University, South Korea
    Email: jhl@chonbuk.ac.kr

    Professor Dr. Gui Rong Liu
    National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Email: mpeliugr@nus.edu.sg

    Professor Dr. Behrouz Gatmiri
    Université Paris-Est, France
    Email: gatmiri@cermes.enpc.fr

    Professor Dr. A.K.M. Sadrul Islam
    Islamic University of Technology (IUT), Bangladesh
    Email: sadrul@iut-dhaka.edu

    Professor Dr. Bekir Sami Yilbas
    King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia
    Email: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

    Professor Dr. Mohamad Kamal Bedewy
    Misr University for Science and Technology, Egypt
    Email: kbedewy@yahoo.com

    Professor Dr. Kikou Kishimoto
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
    Email: kkishimo@mep.titech.ac.jp

    Professor Dr. Genki Yagawa
    Toyo University, Japan
    Email: yagawa@eng.toyo.ac.jp

    Professor Dr. Ing. Livan Fratini
    University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
    Email: fratini@dtpm.unipa.it

    Professor René de Borst
    University of Glasgow Rankine Building
    E-mail: Rene.DeBorst@glasgow.ac.uk

    Professor Dr. Pradeep K. Sen
    IIT Delhi, India
    Email: pksen@am.iitd.ernet.in

    Professor Dr. Viggo Tvergaard
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
    Email: viggo@mek.dtu.dk

    Professor Dr. Mousa S.Mohsen
    Hashemite University, Jordan
    Email: msmohsen@hu.edu.jo

    Professor Dr. T. S. Zhao
    The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology
    Email: metzhao@ust.hk

    Professor Dr. Ir. Joost Duflou
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Email: Joost.Duflou@mech.kuleuven.be

    Professor Dr. Antti Samuli Korhonen
    Helsinki University of Technology, Finland
    Email: asko@hut.fi

    Professor Dr. June-Yule Lee
    National Kaohsiung Marine University, Taiwan
    Email: juneyule@ms10.hinet.net

    Professor Dr. S. Srinivasa Murthy
    Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India
    Email: ssmurthy@iitm.ac.in

    Professor Dr. Youssef A. Shatilla
    Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, UAE
    Email: yshatilla@masdar.ae

    Professor Dr. Ir. Marc Geers
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
    Email: M.G.D.Geers@tue.nl

    Professor Dr. Ing ?ubomír Šoo?
    Slovak University of Technology, Slovak Republic
    Email: lubomir.soos@stuba.sk

    Professor Dr. Luis Filipe Martins Menezes
    Coimbra University, Portugal
    Email: luis.menezes@dem.uc.pt

    Professor Dr. Talal Yusaf
    University of Southern Queensland, Australia
    Email: Talal.Yusaf@usq.edu.au

    Dr. Kumar Vikram Singh
    Miami University, USA
    Email: singhkv@muohio.edu




    International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering (IJAME) is committed to ensuring the highest standards of publication ethics whereas the publication malpractice is strictly prohibited by all possible measure. Our responsibility is to publish original work of value to the intellectual community in the best possible form and to the highest possible standards. We expect similar standards from our reviewers and authors. Honesty, originality and fair dealing on the part of authors, and fairness, objectivity and confidentiality on the part of editors and reviewers are among the critical values that enable us to achieve our goal. IJAME endorses and behaves in accordance with the codes of conduct and international standards established by the Committee on Publication Ethics. IJAME is committed to following best practices on ethical matters, errors, and retractions, and to provide legal review if necessary.

    i. The Editors are responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published;
    ii. The Editors may discuss with other editors or reviewers in making decision;
    iii. The Editors evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors;
    iv. The Editors must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate;
    v. The Editors should ensure a fair and appropriate peer review process;
    vi. Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used by anyone who has a view of the manuscript in his or her own research without the express written consent of the author;
    vii. The Editors should guard the integrity of the published record by issuing corrections and retractions when needed and pursuing suspected or alleged research and publication misconduct.

    i. The Editorial Board must keep information pertaining to submitted manuscripts confidential.
    ii. The Editorial Board must disclose any conflicts of interest.
    iii. The Editorial Board must evaluate manuscripts only for their intellectual content.
    iv. The Editorial Board is responsible for making publication decisions for submitted manuscripts.

    i. Information regarding manuscripts submitted by authors should be kept confidential and be treated as privileged information;
    ii. Reviews should be conducted objectively. There shall be no personal criticism of the author. Reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments;
    iii. Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that had been previously reported elsewhere should be accompanied by the relevant citation;
    iv. Reviewers should request to the Editors attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge;
    v. In case, any reviewer feels that it is not possible for him/her to complete review of manuscript within stipulated time then the same must be communicated to the editors, so that the same could be sent to any other reviewer;
    vi. Reviewers should not review manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

    i. The Authors should submit papers only on work that has been conducted in an ethical and responsible manner and that complies with all relevant legislation;
    ii. The Authorspresent their results clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation;
    iii. The Authors should endeavor to describe their methods clearly and unambiguously so that their findings can be confirmed by others;
    iv. The Authors should adhere to publication requirements that submitted work is original, is not plagiarized, and has not been published elsewhere;
    v. The Authors must certify that the manuscript is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere;
    vi. The Authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others this must be appropriately cited;
    vii. The Authors should take collective responsibility for submitted and published work; A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Duplicitous or expressively inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable;
    viii. Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work;
    x. The Authors should ensure that the authorship accurately reflects individuals' contributions to the work and its reporting; and where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged;
    xi. The Authors should disclose relevant funding sources and any existing or potential conflicts of interest. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed;
    xii. When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the journal editors and the editor to retract or correct the paper.


    IJAME accepts manuscripts that have not been published elsewhere and are not under consideration for publication by other print or electronic media. The authors agree to transfer the copyright to IJAME editorial office. Download the Copyright Transfer form at http://www.IJAME_copyright_form.pdf

    Manuscript Preparation

    These instructions are written in a form that satisfies all of the formatting requirements for the author manuscript. Please use them as a template in preparing the manuscript. Authors must take special care to follow these instructions concerning margins. The basic instructions are simple:

    - Manuscript shall be formatted for an A4 size page.
    - The top margin and left margins shall be 30 mm.
    - The bottom and right margins shall be 25 mm.
    - The text shall have both the left and right margins justified.


    The manuscript should be organized in the following order: Title of the paper, Authors' names and affiliation, Abstract, Key Words, Introduction, Body of the paper (in sequential headings), Conclusion, Acknowledgements (where applicable), References, and Appendices (where applicable).
    The Title

    The title is centered on the page and is CAPITALIZED AND SET IN BOLDFACE (font size 14 pt). It should adequately describe the content of the paper. An abbreviated title of less than 60 characters (including spaces) should also be suggested.

    Author's Name and Affiliation

    The author's name(s) follows the title and is also centered on the page (font size 12 pt). A blank line is required between the title and the author's name(s). Last names should be spelled out in full and succeeded by author's initials. The author's affiliation, complete mailing address and e-mail address (all in font size 12 pt), phone and fax numbers are provided immediately below the authors name.


    A nonmathematical abstract, not exceeding 200 words, is required for all manuscripts. It should be an abbreviated, accurate presentation of the contents of the manuscript. It should contain sufficient information to enable readers to decide whether they should obtain and read the entire manuscript. Do not cite references in the abstract.

    Key Words

    The author should provide a list of three to five key words that clearly describe the subject matter of the paper.

    Text Layout

    The manuscript must be typed single spacing. Use extra line spacing between equations, illustrations, figures and tables. The body of the text should be prepared using Times New Roman. The font size used for preparation of the manuscript must be 12 points. The first paragraph following a heading should not be indented. The following paragraphs must be indented 10 mm. Note that there is no line spacing between paragraphs unless a subheading is used. Symbols for physical quantities in the text should be written in italics.

    Section headings

    Section headings should be typed centered on the page and in capital letters only. The type, fonts and style above (Times New Roman 12 point bold) are an example of a section heading. Do not underline section headings. A bold font should be used for section headings. The headings should be numbered.


    Subheadings should be positioned at the left margin, in a bold-faced font the same size as the main text (Times New Roman 12 point) with single line spacing above and below. The first letter of each word in the subheading should be capitalized.


    Sub-subheadings should be typed using italic font the same size as that used for the body of the text (Times New Roman 12 point italics). Only the first letter in the subheading should be capitalized. Note that a blank line precedes and follows the subheading.

    Equations and Mathematical Expressions

    Equation numbers should appear in parentheses and be numbered consecutively. All equation numbers must appear on the right-hand side of the equation and should be referred to within the text. Two different types of styles can be used for equations and mathematical expressions. They are: in-line style, and display style.

    In-line style

    In-line equations/expressions are embedded in paragraphs of the text. In-line equations should not be numbered.

    Display style

    Equations in display format are separated from the paragraphs of text. They should be flushed to the centered of the column.

    F = ma (1)

    Fractional powers should be used instead of root signs. A slash (/) should be used instead of a horizontal line for fractions, whenever possible; for example, use 2/3 for two-thirds. Refer to equations in the text as "Eq.(1)" or, if at the beginning of a sentence, as " Equation (1)". Vectors should be typed boldface. Do not use arrows, wavy-line underscoring, etc.

    Figures and Tables

    Figures (diagrams and photographs) should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers. They should be placed in the text soon after the point where they are referenced. Figures should be centered in a column and should have a figure caption placed underneath. Captions should be centered in the column, in the format “Figure 1.” and are in upper and lower case letters. When referring to a figure in the body of the text, the abbreviation "Figure" is used. Illustrations must be submitted in digital format, with a good resolution. Table captions appear centered above the table. When referring to a table in the text, "Table" with the proper number is used. Captions should be centered in the column, in the format "Table 1." and are in upper and lower case letters. Tables are numbered consecutively and independently of any figures. All figures and tables must be incorporated into the text (in Portrait orientation).


    The use of SI units is strongly recommended and mixed units are to be avoided.


    A conclusion section must be included and should indicate clearly the advantages, limitations and possible applications of the paper. Discuss about future work.


    An acknowledgement section may be presented after the conclusion, if desired. Individuals or units other than authors who were of direct help in the work could be acknowledged by a brief statement following the text.


    The Harvard System of references is to be used. In the body of the text a manuscript is to be referred to by the author’s surname with the year of publication in parentheses. References should be listed together at the end of the manuscript in alphabetical order by author's surname. List of references indent 10 mm from the second line of each references. Personal communications and unpublished data are not acceptable references.

    Journal Papers

    Rahman, M.M. and Ariffin, A.K. 2006. Effects of surface finish and treatment on the fatigue behaviour of vibrating cylinder block using frequency response approach. Journal of Zhejiang University of Science A. 7(3): 352-360. doi: 10.1631/jzus.2006.A0352


    Juvinall, R.C. and Marshek, K.M. 2000. Fundamentals of machine component design. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

    Proceedings Papers

    Rahman, M.M., Noor, M.M., Bakar, R. A. and Sani, M.S.M. 2008. Investigation into surface treatment on fatigue life for cylinder block of linear engine using frequency response approach. 15th International Congress on Sound and Vibrations, pp. 2119-2127.


    Rockwell Automation. Arena. http://www.arenasimulation.com, accessed on 13-01-2009


    Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for final checking. Corrections to the proofs must be restricted to printer's errors: any other changes to the text, in equations or grammar, may be charged to the author. Proofs should be returned to the editors within three days of receipt to minimize the risk of the author’s contribution having to be held over to a later issue. The editors do not accept responsibility for the correctness of published contents. It is the author’s responsibility to check the content at proof stage.



    No page charges: Publication in this journal is free of charge.


    One journal issues of which the article appears in along with ten offprints will be supplied free of charge to the corresponding author. Corresponding authors will be given the choice to buy extra offprints before printing of the article.


    No length limitations for contributions are set, but only concisely written papers are published. Brief articles are considered on the basis of technical merit. Discussions of previously published papers are welcome.


    Published 2 times in a year


    IJAME is free for authors, researchers, academicians, postgraduate students and visitors.


    It is hoped that this list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the Editor. Ensure that the following items are present:

    - One Author designated as corresponding Author:
    - E-mail address
    - Full postal address
    - Telephone and fax numbers
    - All necessary files have been uploaded
    - Keywords
    - All figure captions
    - All tables (including title, description, footnotes)


    - Manuscript has been "spellchecked" and "grammar-checked"
    - References are in the correct format for this journal
    - All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    - Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources
      Journal Coverage

    Indexed by MyJurnal (2019)
    H-Index 0
    Immediacy Index 0.000
    Rank 0
    Indexed by Scopus (SCImago Journal Rankings 2016)
    Impact Factor 0
    Rank Q2 (Automotive Engineering)
    Q2 (Mechanical Engineering)
    Additional Information 0.445 (SJR)

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