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Journal of Nuclear and Related Technologies

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Journal of Nuclear and Related Technologies


Discipline(s) / Subdiscipline(s):

     1. Sciences
         - Physics
         - Chemistry

     2. Medical & Health Sciences
         - Medicine

     3. Engineering & Technology
         - Engineering

Print ISSN: 1823-0180
Publisher: Malaysian Nuclear Society
Publication type: Print
Publication frequency: 2 time(s) per year
Journal Website: http://www.nuklearmalaysia.org/publication/jnrt

Contact Info

Publishing Office:
Journal of Nuclear & Related Technologies
Malaysian Nuclear Society
c/o 30, Kompleks Niaga Sungai Merab
44300 Sepang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

Tel: 603-8925 0510; Fax: 603-8925 0907

Abdul Aziz Mohammed
Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia)
Kompleks PUSPATI, Bangi
43000 Kajang Selangor
Tel #: 603-89250510; Fax #: 603-89282992
Email: aziz_mohd@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my

Editorial Secretariat:
Azraf Azman
e-mail: azraf@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my

Advertisement & Subscription:
e-mail: shalina@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my

Journal of Nuclear and Related Technologies (JNRT) is a bi-annual scientific and technology journal related to the use of nuclear science and technology in the fields of medicine, industry, agriculture and research. It was first published in 1983 (known as Jurnal Sains Nuklear Malaysia - JSNM) by the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (currently known as Malaysian Nuclear Agency). Since 1999, the management and publication of this journal was entrusted to the Malaysian Nuclear Society (MNS). Under MNS JNRT expands its editorial board to include local as well as international experts in various fields related to the thrust of this journal. The new JNRT cover depicts part of the MNS logo, as well as the full MNS logo at the bottom left of the cover page.

The Editorial Board of JNRT and MNS welcome and thank contributors to this journal. The statements and opinions expressed in the published articles and the communication herein are those of the author(s) and not necessarily of the editor(s) or the publisher. The Editorial Board of JNRT, MNS and the publisher claim no responsibility to any omissions or inaccuracies, nor guarantee their contents.

Journal of Nuclear and Related Technologies



Profesor Madya Dr Abdul Aziz Bin Mohamed

Editorial Board

  • Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid, Ph.D, International Islamic University Malaysia

  • Zaini Hamzah, Ph.D, Universiti Teknologi MARA


Chief Editor
  • Abdul Aziz Mohamed, Ph.D, Universiti Tenaga Nasional

Deputy Chief Editor
  • Che Abd Rahim Mohamed, Ph.D, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

  • Dahlan Hj. Mohd, Ph.D, Malaysian Nuclear Agency
  • Muhammad Pauzi Ismail, Ph.D, Malaysian Nuclear Agency
  • Nashriyah Mat, Ph.D, Universiti Darul Iman Malaysia
  • Nasri A. Hamid, Ph.D, Universiti Tenaga Nasional
  • Ahmad Saat, Ph.D, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Faridah Mohamad Idris, Ph.D, Malaysian Nuclear Agency

  • Sukiman Sarmani, Ph.D, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Ahmad Termizi Ramli, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Abdul Aziz Tajuddin, Ph.D, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Sharif Hegers, Ph.D, Los Alamos National Laboratory, United States of America
  • Paul Huibers, Ph.D, Ars Digita Corporation, United States of America
  • Yosuke Katsumura, Ph.D, University of Tokyo, Japan
  • Edi Giri Putra, Ph.D, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Indonesia

  • Radiochemistry, Environment
  • Zaini Hamzah, Ph.D
    School of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 47000 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

  • Radiation Technology, Radiation Chemistry, Radiochemistry
  • Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh, Ph.D
    Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

  • Agriculture, Environment, Radiation Biology and Radiobiology
  • Nashriyah Mat, Ph.D
    Universiti Darul Iman Malaysia, Kuala Trengganu, Trengganu, Malaysia

  • NDT, Radiotracer, Radiometry, Metallurgy, Hydrology, Sedimentology
  • Muhamad Pauzi Ismail, Ph.D
    Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

  • Radiation Processing
  • Dahlan Hj. Mohd, Ph.D
    Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

  • Medical Technology and Radiation Safety Noriah Jamal, Ph.D
    Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

  • Neutron Scattering and Chemical Physics
  • Shahidan Radiman, Ph.D
    Nuclear Science Programme, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

  • Nuclear Materials and Technology, Neutron Beam Instrumentation
  • Abdul Aziz Mohamed, Ph. D
    Centre for Nuclear Energy, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

  • Chemistry, Environment
  • Ahmat Saat, Ph. D
    School of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 47000 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nasri A. Hamid, Ph. D
    Centre for Nuclear Energy, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

  • Health Physics
  • Ahmad Termizi Ramli, Ph.D
    Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

  • Radiochemistry, Radiation Chemistry
  • Sukiman Sarmani, Ph.D
    School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43000 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

  • Radiation Chemistry and Radiation Technology
  • Yosuke Katsumura, Ph.D
    Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 Japan

  • Medical Physics, Nuclear Medicine
  • Abdul Aziz Tajuddin, Ph.D
    School of Physical Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

  • Nuclear Physics & Engineering
  • A. Sharif Heger, Ph.D
    Los Alamos Standard Laboratory, Engineering Analytical Group, Engineering Science & Application of Isotope, P.O. Box 106, MS 946, Los Alamos, USA

  • Chemical Physics
  • Paul Huibers, Ph.D
    Ars Digita Corporation, 80 Prospect 57, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA

  • Radiobiology and Radiation Biology
  • Edy Giri Rachman Putra, Ph.D
    National Nuclear Energy Agency, Indonesia



Journal of Nuclear and Related Technologies (JNRT) aims at advancing the progress of nuclear science and related technologies through the sharing of knowledge and information dissemination via publication. Articles covering reviews, research papers, research notes either in basic, applied research or the applications of nuclear science and technology are accepted.

Contributors are requested to submit their papers in the English Language in the format described below to facilitate reviews by the referees and to expedite processing. Please note that the submission of manuscript is taken to imply that, if accepted for publication in JNRT, it will not be published in the same form elsewhere and that the copyright of all papers is assigned to the Malaysian Nuclear Society (MNS).

The following types of manuscript, on A4-size paper with B5-size lay-out, will be considered for publication: Review/Standard articles (invited or submitted, not more than 30 pages); Research Notes (brief reports containing at least 2 tables/figures, but not more than 10 pages); Short Notes (brief reports containing at least 2 tables/figures, but not more than 5 pages); Methods (short, current experimental protocols with detailed explanation, not more than 10 pages); Letters to the Editor (in response to previous articles); and Book Review (should be informative and focused on its contribution towards the advancement of nuclear science and technology). Authors are requested to send their manuscript in a 3.25” diskette together with three hardcopies (laser jet printed quality, or equivalent) to any of the editorial board members.

Each article will be assigned to an editor. After preliminary examination to establish that it is within the scope of JNRT, the manuscript will be reviewed for originality and significance by at least one independent referee who then makes recommendation as to its acceptability for publication. The Chief Editor reserves the right to make the final decision.

Manuscripts should be typed in MSWord Program, double-spacing throughout (including abstract and references) on one side of A4-size paper with B5-size lay-out with wide margins (1.5 cm) and Times New Roman standardized font. Every page of the manuscript, including references, tables, etc., should be numbered consecutively on the upper right-hand corner. Words that should be in italics must be typed as such or underlined. Do not underline any other word. It is recommended that articles are divided into the following sections: ABSTRACT, (ABSTRAK – the Malay Language translation of the Abstract, to be provided by the Editorial Board in case of foreign submissions), INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS, and METHODS, RESULTS/and DISCUSSION, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (if any), REFERENCES. Section headings should be capitalized and flushed to the left. Sub-headings should be typed in lower-case, flushed to the left as well. The text should be typed two spaces below the section heading. Results should either be presented in table or figure form, but not in both forms. Captions should be written above the table or below the figure. The manuscript in general should be organized in the following order:

Title: Concise and descriptive, capitalized, bold, and centered.
Name(s) of author(s): Bold, title-case and centered.
Present address (es): Lower-case, italicized and centered.
Abstract: The abstract, in 200 to 300 words, should be clear and informative when read in isolation. The word “Abstract” should be italicized, and bold.
Keywords: Five or six words should be selected to reflect the whole ideas of the paper.

Research notes should not exceed 10 typed written pages (including tables and figures) and written without sub-headings, except for ABSTRACT and REFERENCES.

Short notes should not exceed 5 typed written pages (including tables and figures) and written without sub-headings, except for ABSTRACT and REFERENCES.

Title Page:
A separate title page should include: (1) title of paper; (2) names and initials of authors; (3) institutional affiliations of authors; (4) name and address of corresponding author; (5) keywords in alphabetical order (maximum of six, suitable for indexing). The corresponding author is requested to supply the full postal address, telephone and fax numbers, and E-mail address (if available).

The list of references should be arranged alphabetically according to the surname of the first author. Publication(s) by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 1984a, 1984b etc. References cited in the text should be given in parentheses, e.g. (Mohamed, 1992: Ho and Chin, 1993; Seth et al., 1994) except when the author is mentioned e.g., “and the study of Ross and Price (1990) and Smith et al. (1995)”. Journal titles should be cited in full. The following system should be used for listing the references:

Journal citation:
Eary, J. F., Collins, C., Stabin, M. and Vernon, C., (1993), Samarium-153 EDTMP biodistribution dosimetry estimation, J. Nucl. Med. 34:1031-1036.

Book chapter:
Stoll, B. A., (1983), Natural history, prognosis, and staging bone metastases. In: Bone Metastases: Monitoring and Treatment. B. A. Stoll and S. Pharbhoos (eds.). NY Raven Press, New York. 1-20.

Glasstone, S. and Sesonke, A., (1967), Nuclear Reactor Engineering. Van Nostrand Reinhaold Company, New York. 244 pp.

IAEA, (1975), Laboratory Manual on the Use of Radiotracer Techniques in Industry and Environmental Pollution. Tech. Rep. Series No. 161, Vienna, Austria.

Surif, S., Heng, P. H., Jelin, N. and Juzu, H. A., (1994), Preliminary study on some detoxication/toxication enzymes in fish in the Muda area. In: Proceedings of the Seminar on Impact of Pesticides on the Rice Agroecosystem in the Muda Area. B. M. Nashriyah, K. Y. Lum and B. S. Ismail (eds.). 12-13 December 1994, Pulau Pinang. 19-28.

Thesis and Dissertation:
Nasir, A. I., (1980), The Use of Inhibitors in Water Cooling Systems. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Surrey, 103-110.

Andress Jr. H. J., (1974), German Patent 2, 413, October.

Japanese Industrial Standard, (1975), Method of Ultrasonic Manual Testing and Classification of Test Results for Welds, JIS Z 3060.

JAIF, Inc., (2004), 6th FNCA Coordianators Meeting in Japan, http://www.fnca.jp, 2nd June 2005.

Personal communications:
References to personal communications should be kept to a minimum and be mentioned in the text in the following form: (Ramirez, pers. comm.).

Units, symbols, and abbreviations:
Authors should use only the SI system of units e.g. g (gram), Pl (microlitre), kg (kilogram), cm (centimeter), ha (hectare), h (hour), min (minute), s (second), oC (Celsius) or K (Kelvin). Non-standard abbreviations should be employed only where multiple use is necessary, and should be defined on their first appearance in the text and also abstract. Isotopes should be indicated as: 14C,32P,15N, or Carbon-14, Phosphorus-32, Nitrogen-15, not as C14 or P32 or N15.

Scientific names:
The complete Latin name (Genus, species and authority) must be given in full for every organism when first mentioned in the text. Italicize the Latin names of genera and species.

Authors should take note of the limitations set by the size and layout of the Journal and avoid large tables. Each table should be numbered consecutively (Table 1, Table 2, etc.), and typed double-spaced on a separate page. Each table should be provided with concise and self-explanatory title in lower case above the table, and contain horizontal lines only (above and below column headings and at the end of the table). Avoid unnecessary use of abbreviations; all abbreviations should be clearly explained in a footnote. Whenever possible, large data set should be presented in two or more tables for clarity. Figures and photos: Figures and photographs are to be labeled as figures (Fig.). All figures should be drawn on separate sheet of paper. Identify each figure lightly in pencil on the reverse. Captions to all figures should be typed double-spaced in lower-case below the figure. Illustrations should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. References should be made in the text to each illustration. Photographs (of high quality black and white, glossy print type and good contrast) should be submitted in duplicate and complete with magnification (if any). Colored slides will not be considered for printing.

Galley Proofs:
The author should correct Proofs when received, and returned to the Chief Editor or Assigned Editor within 7 working days. No changes other than editorial corrections should be made. Soft-copy of the article should be sent to JNRT Chief Editorial to speed up the publication process.
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