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Malaysian Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

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Malaysian Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

Formerly known as "Malaysian Journal of Child Health"


Discipline(s) / Subdiscipline(s):

     1. Medical & Health Sciences
         - Medicine
         - Nutrition

Print ISSN: 1511-4511
Publisher: Malaysian Paediatric Association
Publication type: Print
Publication frequency: 2 time(s) per year
Journal Website: https://mpaeds.my/journals/index.php/MJPCH

Contact Info

Malaysian Paediatric Association
3rd Floor (Annexe Block)
National Cancer Society Building
66, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz
50300 Kuala Lumpur

Tel: 03-2691 5379 / 2698 9966
Fax: 03-2691 3446
Email: info@mpaweb.org.my

Editor-in-Chief :
Professor Dr. Zilfalil Bin Alwi

The online MJPCH provides a forum for the dissemination of original research articles as well as review articles in all areas related to Pediatrics and Child Health. It is an open-access journal with a focus on cutting-edge findings in the field of Pediatrics and Child Health, including case reports on different clinical findings, hence sharing not only the knowledge but the experience of specialists and consultants in the related fields. Researchers will also have the opportunity to submit their findings in a form of short communications. Different types of submissions will benefit not only the pediatricians but also the general medical profession.



Professor Dr. Zilfalil Bin Alwi

Editorial Board


Zilfalil Bin Alwi
MBBS, MSc, MMed (Paeds), PhD
Consultant Paediatrician & Clinical Geneticist
School of Medical Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia


Hans Van Rostenberghe
MD (Ghent, Belgium), Specialist in Pediatrics (Ghent, Belgium)
Professor, Neonatologist
Head of Department of Paediatrics
Universiti Sains Malaysia

Cheah Fook Choe
MD, MMed(Paeds) (UKM), MRCPI, FRCPCH, FRACP, PhD (Otago, NZ), AM
Professor of Paediatrics (Neonatology)
Faculty of Medicine
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre

Hany Arffin
Professor and Consultant Paediatric Haematologist-Oncologist
University of Malaya Medical Centre

Terrence Thomas
Consultant Paediatric Neurologist
Sabah Women & Children’s Hospital

Thiyagar Nadarajaw
MD (USM), M.Med Paediatrics (USM), Fellowship Adolescent Medicine (Australia)
Consultant Paediatrician & Adolescent Medicine Specialist
Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim

Tang Swee Fong
MD (Hons) (UKM), MRCP (UK), MMMed (Paeds) (UKM).
Associate Professor and Consultant Paediatric Intensivist
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre


Zabidi Azhar Mohd Hussin
Professor of Paediatrics
School of Medical Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia


Atif Amin Baig
BSc, MSc
School of Medical Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia



Notice to Authors

The Malaysian Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health welcomes articles on all aspects of child health in the form of original papers, research notes, communications and correspondence. Articles are accepted for publication on condition that they are contributed solely to the Malaysian Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. Neither the Editorial Board nor the Publishers accept responsibility for the views and statements of authors expressed in their contributions.

To avoid delays in publication, authors are advised to strictly adhere to the instructions given below. Manuscripts, which do not conform to the required format, shall be rejected.

Author Guidelines

Manuscript preparation must meet Journal requirements, which are in accordance with "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (available at www.cimje.org) and are summarized below.

Originality and copyright policy:

Manuscripts are reviewed with the understanding that they represent original material, have never been published before, are not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and have been approved by all authors. Prior publication constitutes any form of publication other than an abstract and includes invited articles, proceedings, symposia, and book chapters. Authors must fully inform the Editor during the online submission process if the submitted manuscript contains data and/or clinical observations that have been published or submitted for publication elsewhere, supply copies of such material, and explain the differences between the previous and submitted works. All accepted manuscripts become the property of the Malaysian Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health and may not be published elsewhere without written permission from the Malaysian Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health.

Manuscript Format and Style

Type the manuscript using Times New Roman with font 12 and ensure double spacing on all portions of the manuscript, including title page, abstract, text, acknowledgements, references, individual tables, and figures. Each section should begin on a separate page. Number pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, beginning with the title page.

Categories of Papers

Original articles: This category is intended for full-scale basic or clinical studies. Original articles should be around not exceed 5,000 words (not including structured abstracts of up to 250 words, 3-5 key words, references, tables, and figures) with a maximum of 5 figures and 5 tables in total.

Review articles: This category is for scholarly, comprehensive reviews that summarize and critically evaluate research in the field addressed and identify future implications. Review articles should not exceed 5,000 words (not including structured abstracts of up to 250 words, 3-5 key words, references, tables, and figures) with a maximum of 5 figures and tables in total.

Opinions: This category is intended for articles expressing views, judgments, and/or advices on the matters relevant to the field of Paediatrics. Opinions should contain no more than 1,500 words (not including structured abstracts of up to 150 words, 3-5 key words, references, tables, and figures).

Short reports: This category is for smaller, self-contained laboratory or clinical studies, including preliminary reports and case series. Single cases will not be considered in this category and should be submitted as Case reports. Manuscripts in this category should contain no more than 3,000 words (not including structured abstracts of up to 200 words, 3-5 key words, references, tables, and figures).

Case reports: These should briefly report single experiments and cases of clinical interest. Manuscripts in this category should contain no more than 2,000 words (not including structured abstracts of up to 200 words, 3-5 key words, references, tables, and figures).

Letters to the Editor: These should briefly respond to recent articles. Letters to the Editor should not exceed 1,000 words (including text and references) with a maximum of one table or figure.

Title page:

The title page should carry the following information:

1. Title, which should be concise but informative without using acronyms.
2. Authors, including first name, middle initial, and last name along with two highest academic degree(s) and institutional affiliation(s) of each author.
3. A running head of 45 characters or less (count letters and spaces).
4. A corresponding author with full address and email address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address.
5. Statistical summary of the manuscript, including the total number of words, the number of words in the abstract, and the numbers of references, tables, and figures.


An abstract not exceeding 250 words should include: Objective: purpose of the study or research question; Methods: study design, sample selection, setting, subjects, interventions(s) if any and main outcome measure(s); Results: main findings (giving their statistical significance, if possible); and Conclusions.

New and important findings are emphasized in the summary. Below the abstract provide 3 – 5 key words that will assist indexers.

Invited and review articles should have an unstructured abstract of no more than 200 words, while brief reports (case reports included) should have an abstract of not more than 200 words.


Introduction: Provide a context or background for the study (i.e., the nature of the problem and its significance). State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation. The main and secondary objectives should be made clear, and any pre-specified subgroup analyses should be described. Give only strictly pertinent references and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.

Methods: The Methods section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was written; all information obtained during the conduct of the study belongs in the Results section.

Selection and description of participants: Please state if the study has received an approval from the local institution Ethics committee. Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. The guiding principle should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a particular way.

Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the experiment. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

Statistics: Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results.

Results: Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables.

Discussion: Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section. For experimental studies it is useful to begin the discussion by summarizing briefly the main findings, then explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed.

Acknowledgements: This section may include: i) acknowledgements of financial and material support; ii) contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship; iii) acknowledgement of technical help; and iv) indications of previous presentation.

References: Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the references. Avoid using abstracts as references. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as "in press" or "forthcoming". Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be avoided but, if necessary, may be cited in the text as "unpublished observations". Avoid citing a "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text.

Only relevant references cited in the text should be included, and numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in brackets. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the Index Medicus.

Example citations: Depression is a disease state affecting both the body and the brain, and it contributes to direct and indirect healthcare costs via consequent disability and reduced productivity [1]. Depression affects nearly 340 million people worldwide at any given time [2,3]. In clinical population with depression, physical symptoms are common [4-6]. The reference style should be in concordance with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (full details are available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html).

Examples are as follows:

Articles in Journals

1. Standard journal article

List the first six authors followed by et al. (Note: NLM now lists all authors.)

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.

As an option, if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume (as many medical journals do) the month and issue number may be omitted.

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.

More than six authors:

Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.

Optional addition of a database's unique identifier for the citation: [Edited 12 May 2009]

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. PubMed PMID: 12140307.

Forooghian F, Yeh S, Faia LJ, Nussenblatt RB. Uveitic foveal atrophy: clinical features and associations. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Feb;127(2):179-86. PubMed PMID: 19204236; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2653214.

Optional addition of a clinical trial registration number: [Added 12 May 2009]

Trachtenberg F, Maserejian NN, Soncini JA, Hayes C, Tavares M. Does fluoride in compomers prevent future caries in children? J Dent Res. 2009 Mar;88(3):276-9. PubMed PMID: 19329464. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00065988.

2. Organization as author

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.

3. Both personal authors and organization as author (List all as they appear in the byline.) [Edited 12 May 2009]

Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2257-61.

Margulies EH, Blanchette M; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Haussler D, Green ED. Identification and characterization of multi-species conserved sequences. Genome Res. 2003 Dec;13(12):2507-18.

4. No author given

21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.

5. Article not in English [Edited 12 May 2009]

Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.

Optional translation of article title (MEDLINE/PubMed practice):

Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. [Disease anxiety among medical students and law students]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Mar 20;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.

6. Volume with supplement Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.

7. Issue with supplement Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.

8. Volume with part Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal. 2002;83(Pt 2):491-5.

9. Issue with part Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC. Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002;13(9 Pt 1):923-8.

10. Issue with no volume Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 2002;(401):230-8.

11. No volume or issue

Outreach: bringing HIV-positive individuals into care. HRSA Careaction. 2002 Jun:1-6.

12. Pagination in roman numerals Chadwick R, Schuklenk U. The politics of ethical consensus finding. Bioethics. 2002;16(2):iii-v.

13. Type of article indicated as needed

Tor M, Turker H. International approaches to the prescription of long-term oxygen therapy [letter]. Eur Respir J. 2002;20(1):242.

Lofwall MR, Strain EC, Brooner RK, Kindbom KA, Bigelow GE. Characteristics of older methadone maintenance (MM) patients [abstract]. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;66 Suppl 1:S105.

14. Article containing retraction

Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(2):169. Retraction of: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(12):909-11.

Article containing a partial retraction: [Added 12 May 2009] Starkman JS, Wolder CE, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. Voiding dysfunction after removal of eroded slings. J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 1):2749. Partial retraction of: Starkman JS, Wolter C, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. J Urol. 2006 Sep;176(3):1040-4.

15. Article retracted

Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(12):909-11. Retraction in: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(2):169.

Article partially retracted: [Added 12 May 2009]

Starkman JS, Wolter C, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. Voiding dysfunction following removal of eroded synthetic mid urethral slings. J Urol. 2006 Sep;176(3):1040-4. Partial retraction in: Starkman JS, Wolder CE, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 1):2749.

16. Article republished with corrections

Mansharamani M, Chilton BS. The reproductive importance of P-type ATPases. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;188(1-2):22-5. Corrected and republished from: Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;183(1-2):123-6.

17. Article with published erratum

Malinowski JM, Bolesta S. Rosiglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a critical review. Clin Ther. 2000;22(10):1151-68; discussion 1149-50. Erratum in: Clin Ther. 2001;23(2):309.

18. Article published electronically ahead of the print version

Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 15;100(10):3828-31. Epub 2002 Jul 5.

Tables: Tables capture information concisely, and display it efficiently; they also provide information at any desired level of detail and precision. Including data in tables rather than text frequently makes it possible to reduce the length of the text. Type or print each table with double spacing on a separate sheet of paper. Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each. Do not use internal horizontal or vertical lines. Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all nonstandard abbreviations. For footnotes, use the following symbols, in sequence: *,†,‡,§,||,,**,††,‡‡. Identify statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean. Be sure that each table is cited in the text. If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge them fully.

Figures: Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. Type or print out legends for illustrations using double spacing, starting on a separate page.
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